Press Release of the Exhibition
'Broken Glass in the Swimming Pool'
Nov 26th > Jan 9th
Today is Just a Copy of Yesterday?1
Among the most widely-used contemporary artistic strategies we find the so-called remake. This procedure means the constant reference to and renewal of works from the past. As if artists were a sort of DJs limited in a post-production strategy to use remixes of songs made by others and set out to be rearranged. So, as if the world were set out in images, in a network of circulation and free distribution, ready to be revitalized, today’s artists transform André Malraux’s Imaginary Museum into a reality. Perhaps here the most fitting term for this gesture is that of appropriation, which reveals the saturation, and at the same time the democracy of contemporary art, which is no longer based on the values of uniqueness and originality that art possessed in the past. Great artists have some responsibility in this event. As does the culture industry. So the great works come back in the shape of inhibited phantoms haunting young artists through the weight of their influence. On the other hand, they allow these same artists to strip these classic artists of their categories of unattainable masters.
Harold Bloom, in his essay The Anxiety of Influence, describes the ambivalence involved in this process: a sort of blessing and disease at the same time (the flu from which it derived its name is well known: influenza). So this is simultaneously a divine inspiration that moves artists in the sublimations to the masters, but which ties them down to a universe of (often heaven) references that makes the works of the past be copied and eternally repeated, making us feel that we are in a world in which nothing can be defined as unique and unrepeatable. Walter Benjamin caught the essence of an era like ours, that of the copy, owing to an industrialisation that brought about the reproducibility of the work of art. Yet, as he states, the work of art was always reproducible and nothing can be done without the influence of something that has already existed. Seeing the matter from a positive side, and fulfilling Lavoisier’s view of nature: nothing is lost, (nothing is gained) and everything is changed.
Jonathan Monk (b.1969) is one of the best examples of contemporary artists who make this revitalising of great masters from the past their modus operandi. Through parody and irony, Monk revitalises works by artists who influenced his activity, such as the conceptualism and minimalism of the sixties and seventies. In this exhibition he comes back to one of the works by Edward Ruscha, Nine Swimming Pools and a Broken Glass (1968), a set of photographs which forms an artist’s book. In this work Ruscha plays with the irony about daily life, taking photos of nine swimming pools in an apparently banal and ordinary manner. However, at the end of this set he inserts an image of a broken glass, casting the unsolved mystery for the spectator, causing a sensation close to that of suspense. This broken glass serves as an element of meaning against the idyllic image of swimming pools. What is that glass doing there? Has a crime been committed? Is it a reference to spilt water? Or is it just a joke by the artist, playing with the nonsense of a work that should only be worth what it is, without having to be anchored to an external and hermetic referent? Thinking on his line of work, this process comes from a will that the conceptual inherited from abstractionism: that of leaving the observer with an enormous field of freedom of interpretation. Perhaps this is why Ruscha’s book has a set of blank pages. For Ruscha, these are just to grant body to the work, and he also states, ironically, that they are also a way of saving money in production costs. For the observer they may be the way of freely getting introducing another version into this story.
This freedom of intervention is something that Harold Bloom describes as being creative correction, used as a tool, so that the work redone is not just a mere copy or exercise of skill.
In inverting the order of Ruscha’s images through creative correction, Monk guarantees the authenticity and originality of his own work. The broken glass, which in Nine Swimming Pools and a Broken Glass, appears at the end of the series, is in Broken Glass in the Swimming Pool, the unifying centre of the nine swimming pools that the artist turns into blue neon lights with different tones. Monk keeps to the importance of the formal composition of Ruscha’s photos, and goes on to an almost alchemic transmutation: water moves into neon light, from photography we go to installations and to oil painting, from contemplation to dreaming immersion.
Despite such clear influences, Monk goes beyond and renews the work of his master. In doing so he translates his ancestor. Translating is not unknown to this creator (Translation Piece, 2002). In the work he is showing here, and which teaches us a process of translating (because to translate means to betray), there is always a bit that can’t be translated, a something over. That’s exactly where this work takes place.
In getting into it, even if we see the inspiration in Ruscha, we don’t think of it. We swim in the pool, leaving our critical overcoats aside, and we enjoy the fun (and not the worry) of influence. This is the only way we can find pleasure in the works that, looking at them from the half full glass point of view, are just copies of the past. But might we not ask ourselves in the end: what is really virgin new? Isn’t the world made up of transformation that brings us the refreshing sense of change?
Take care in plunging, the broken glass does not provide safety. But everything that is worthwhile always brings risks. Otherwise this would be the eternal boredom of the safety of repetition over and over. Like historical facts and even those of today, one imagines art to be an open system, like a palimpsest ready to be re-written. Coming back as a conclusion, the metaphor of the water of a river: the water that flows here is the same as the moment right before it. That’s what makes it flow, just like us, mere observers in a process of change, which, indeed, guarantees that we are seeing a true work of art. Unique.
Carla de Utra Mendes1 This title is taken from one of Jonathan Monk’s works: Today is Just a Copy of Yesterday (Holiday) from 2002. The question mark is not a part of the original title.
Press Release of the Exhibition
Oct 22nd > Nov 21st
Inside Matt Mullican’s Cave
“The world is a good term (…)
If it’s not in my mind, then where is it?” 1
Strange Prisoners is how Plato defines the men who are in the cave described in Book VII of the Republic. Strange prisoners looking at a strange painting, is often what we feel like when we look at Matt Mullican’s work. The setting of this strange painting, the wall of a cave, is the place for the projecting of the images of the world, offering the possibility of entering a virtual world. The cave wall is thus a place where magic happens and the projector-constructor of the images (the artist) is the magician. Back in pre-history the painter who took on the role of the Shaman or witch-doctor of the tribe, in a trance, would put his hands on the painted wall as if on the one hand he attributed authorship (signature) to that image and on the other hand tried to enter it in order to capture within the symbol the animal one wished to hunt in real life. In this way the witch-doctor makes the abstract of the imaginary real, granting it form.
The state of trance is not strange to Matt Mullican. He has incorporated it within his modus operandi since the beginning, through performances in which he subjects himself to the risk of losing consciousness. Or, rather, of abdicating it in order to offer (himself and the spectator) a unique and magic event. In this aspect all art is simultaneously a form of sacrifice and an offering of a gift.
The pictures that this artist/shaman creates are archetypes, figures between the general and the particular, which come close to the idea of the object and not the object itself. They are not mere appearances, but are close to an essence, within a conceptual understanding of art. As they are archetypes, they are communicant and can be shared, allowing Matt Mullican to appropriate them and allow the spectator to do the same. This process of appropriation, of choice of the images from the enormous book which is the world, is the way the artist finds to construct a universe very much his own (like Plato with the Republic which becomes the model for an ideal city and society). This world of Matt Mullican’s (The Mullican World, which is the title of a poster made by Mullican in the seventies) is made up of an architecture and specific furniture (Untitled (Database), 1994), of maps or charts that owe much to a psycho-geography (Untitled (City Chart: Elements around World Unframed), 1992 and Untitled (City Chart with Paris Opera House), 1992), of images from the (real or fictional) past Untitled (Bulletin Board A), 1974-2007), of a cosmology (Cosmology Studies) and also of a writing that accompanies it. It even has an inhabitant, Glen, who although he is not here in this exhibition, is always present. It is his alter-ego in a sort of Second Life.
When one looks at his works we immediately think of the surrealists, who like Mullican abdicated from a state of consciousness in order to penetrate into a universe that they transposed into fragments and which combined an automatic writing, coming from the subconscious, with images that oscillated between the real and the fictional. Our imaginary works like that, free from the formal constraints that the real attempts to impose on us.
So Mullican’s true mission seems to be that of subjectivising the world, personifying it and making it real. In a very contemporary strategy of mapping, he makes us realise that the world is not Unitarian and indivisible, but rather made up of fragments that we can re-combine as we wish, giving the greatest importance to details or little touches (Details from an Imaginary Universe or Details from a Fictional Reality – as is the case of the titles of two works from his nineteen seventies series).
At the beginning of the XX century the theory of uncertainty in physics, cubism in painting, flânerie in Baudelaire’s poetry, and situationist driftings throughout the city (among several ex,amples) show how the fragmented and de-centred subject finally understands that instead of being an a priori fact he is a creating being – creating himself and his surrounding reality. A nomad, a vagabond of the real, who plays with the immense puzzle of infinite combinations. The subject thus becomes an archaeologist who excavates the reality of the images of the world, an archivist who files them according to a personal order, a collector who reinvents them and a curator who exhibits them. Or even, like Dedalus, the architect, who builds the labyrinth and proposes to fly over it. Between the micro- and the macro-cosmos.
All reading is an individual personification of the text available to us, (perhaps this is why the book is the first virtual world we have). In his cave, Mullican, the strange prisoner like us, builds an architecture of the world and makes a text out of it, appropriating the wonderful shadows that are cast on the wall. Nietzsche states that, unlike what Plato intended, there is no way out of the cave except into another cave, meaning by this that we are always in the world of illusion, as if we had, according to the Orientals, a veil of Maya in front of our eyes. If this were removed we would lose the capacity for fantasy and art would become merely descriptive of the surrounding world. Mullican teaches us, at a moment when art has lost that transcendence that characterised it, that it is possible to rescue its positive bastion in this all-embracing simulacrum illusion in which we find ourselves. As Shakespeare states, “We are such stuff as dreams are made on”, and this is the final truth of the world invented by Matt Mullican. We are not prisoners of the cave; we simply do not wish to get out.
From Matt Mullican’s career one should highlight the exhibition at The Drawing Centre, New York City, the “Matt Mullican Under Hypnosis” performance at the Tate Museum, London and His participation at the XXVIII Sao Paulo Biennial and the Kassel Documentas 7, 9 and X.
Carla de Utra Mendes
1Mullican, Matt in AAVV, Matt Mullican – Model Architecture, Gemany: Hatje Cantz, 2006, p.19
Press Release of the Exhibition
Sep 2nd > Oct 10th 2009
We have nothing of our own
By those who have nowhere
Anon. Graffiti on a wall in Lisbon
As a whole, we might term the works by Yonamine (b. 1975) as diaries or even archaeologies. On time, on the past and the present (on the re-invented, re-updated), on life. His and that of the world. The title chosen for this exhibition is perhaps so significant due to this fact. Control Z is a computer language that allows one to “undo” or go back, but here it almost becomes a manifesto about the accumulating of experiences from which we can truly take a lesson.
In this exhibition now on show at the Cristina Guerra Gallery we see a momentary crystallisation of this ephemeral set of references, from the history of art, covering politics and the artist’s everyday life, which allow us to reflect, through his “aesthetics of proposal” on a set of current and past concerns that we may consider to be eternal. In this manner there is an attempt to stand up to forgetfulness. As is shown in (I shoot can, 2009) the spiral, impressionist movement of the artist’s footprints serves to remind us that we are all in the crosshairs. The way he constructs the work (in puzzle) and its process of accumulation and random fragmentation, almost surrealist, can tell us a great deal about how today we all are fragmented identities, broken mirrors. Ongoing, flowing, frail identities, subjected to several different types of violence.
In his modus operandi Yonamine proposes a universe that coincides more with the authentic aspect of life, going against the most machine-like and homogenous view of a world that nowadays one wants to be “hygienic” and perfect. As is shown by some of the symbols in his works, here it is forbidden to wash, iron or tidy up. Unlike other artists we may evoke here, like Basquiat, the whole process here is, however, drawn up within a greatly humorous Pop language. As if laughter, in its derisory understanding, were the best weapon of catharsis. Perhaps this is why he invites us to chill out on sandbags that remind us of the beach on which (peacefully or not) George W. Bush socializes with the picture of the Kinguilas (women who change money in the streets).
This ambivalence between the serious and the playful provokes interpretative short-circuits in the spectator, as this installation can also be likened to a treacherous trench in which we are all invited to share the above-mentioned guilt over our fatal and inevitable humanity. It is also a reference to our capacity for opting between an exercise in reflection and a form of pure contemplation.
Yonamine brings together a set of situations that oscillate between a past, a present and a possible future, offering a concept of time that escapes limitation. Like in the language of Reggae DJs, in his work we may think about the concept of rewinding, and at the same time we are located within today. The evoking of his past is done in several different ways, form African tradition (as can be seen in the reference to the drawings in the sand by the Quiocos from Northwest Angola) to the memories of Angola with a search for a type of blue (Kind of Blue, 2009), in the style of Yves Klein, inspired by the different “personalized” tones used on the kandongueiros (taxis), or also through the use of old photographs taken from newspapers found in the Lisbon Feira da Ladra flea market. He gives these a new life in a new context.
In High Tech Retro, 2009, we find another manner of re-updating. The “Last Supper”, painted by Da Vinci, simultaneously serves as a springboard for a reflection on the history of art revisited and as a “political” and ironic commentary in telling us about the current financial crisis, which has in fact existed since 1975, when our “messianic” hegemony starts to crumble, among other factors, through Angolan independence. The flies on the canvas thus verify the stating of a certain parasitical mentality that is present to this day in Portuguese culture.
All this is saying little about such a rich and complex world that this artist’s work becomes. His canvases, just like this text, need “physical” yet not necessarily limiting containment. Through his vast and labyrinthine set of subjects and forms, Yonamine grants us the possibility of travelling beyond the physical space of the canvas. “If I weren’t a painter, I would be a writer, or even a musician … That’s it … For me it’s all about communication”.
Impossible to do CONTROL Z… Just as well.
Carla de Utra Mendes
CONTROL Z is slow, sliding over the natural disorder of things until it
weaves and waits, and we want slow sliding on the unnatural order of things,
because thinking hurts.
Press Release of the Exhibition
'Raised Eyebrows/ Furrowed Foreheads: Part II'
May 7th > Jun 20th 2009
“Raised Eyebrows/Furrowed Foreheads”, is John Baldessari´s second solo exhibition at Cristina Guerra Contemporary Art.
Baldessari is considered one of the artists to have revolutionized the artistic language by being a precursor in the use of photography as a mainstream medium, instead of just being shown in specialized galleries. He is also known for his exploration of language as an artistic tool and for the symbioses between painting and photography that he has explored for the past five decades.
Constantly capable to reinventing himself - working on a vast array of media – Baldessari formed, together with Bruce Nauman and Ed Ruscha, the Los Angeles conceptual art movement. His notoriety will be recognized again this year with the presentation of the Golden Lion Lifetime Achievement Award, bestowed by the Venice Biennale. His oeuvre, in the words of Daniel Birnbaum, curator of the exhibition that will open in June, “has opened new poetic, conceptual and social possibilities for artists around the globe and will remain a source of inspiration for generations to come'.
The current exhibition continues a group of works that the artist has developed around the idea of the body as a fragment, which has come together in series such as: Noses & Ears, Etc., (2006-07) and Arms & Legs (Specif. Elbows & Knees), Etc., (2007-). His fascination with the body, which questions the emphasis either on the totality or on the detail, is well visible in the present series and reconsiders questions that were clearly stated in works the artist has done in the 60’s.
In “Raised Eyebrows/ Furrowed Foreheads”, there is an evident presence of the ironic characteristic of his interventions (close to slapstick comedy) where a game of facial expressions suggest emotions and states of mind, which offer the viewer a reflection on the specificity of the present times.
The manipulation of the fragmented body transforms anatomies into abstractions. The relationship with the surrounding space, as well as a game of colours assume a key role, where an affinity with Pop Art is still present through the contrasting exercise of colours.
The use of photography (film stills that the artist has collected), melts with three dimensional painting through the relief of the support which emphasizes once again the question of obsolete notions of discipline and genre.
Current projects include a one-man exhibition at Haus Lange, Krefeld, until June 2009. In October 2009 a retrospective exhibition will open at the Tate Modern, London, which will travel to MACBA, Barcelona; LACMA, Los Angeles; and The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, through 2011. A multi-volume Catalogue Raisonne of the artist's work is currently being prepared.
The first volume, covering works from 1953-1978, is scheduled for release in Spring 2011.
Solo presentations of his work over the past five years have included exhibitions at: Kunstmuseum Bonn, Bonn (2007); Portikus, Frankfurt (2007); Museum Dhondt-Dhaenens, Deurle, Belgium (2006); Carré d'Art Musée Contemporain de Nimes, France (2005-2006); and Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin (2004).
Baldessari has received many honors, including the 2008 Biennial Award for Contemporary Art, Bonnefantenmuseum, Maastricht, The Netherlands; American Academy of Arts & Letters, 2008; Archives of American Art Medal, Washington, D.C., 2007; the Rolex Mentor and Protege Arts Initiative, 2006-2007; the Lifetime Achievement Award, Americans for the Arts, New York, 2005; and American Academy of Arts & Sciences, 2004. He has received honorary degrees from the National University of Ireland, San Diego State University, and Otis Art Institute of Parsons School of Design.
Press Release of the Exhibition
“Trajectories & Other Lines”
From April 3 to May 2
On her first solo exhibition at Cristina Guerra Contemporary Art Gallery, Lisbon, Angela Bulloch (born 1966 in Rainy River, Ontario, Canada) will present a series of works under the title “Trajectories & Other Lines”. The title refers not to a specific theme that is developed within the exhibition, or a particular group of works but to the nature of the works themselves. All of them have in common a process-based methodology as well as an internal narrative, which is made tangible either through embodying a certain trajectory or an evolution of some kind. These works carry on Bulloch’s investigations into the structures that organize our environments as well as our behaviors as a society.
Z.ara.3:4 a new collaboration between Angela Bulloch and Michael Iber, following the working process and the formation of the Z Phrase piece (first shown in 2008 at the Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus und Kunstbau, München), will be presented at the exhibition. This work’s title Z.ara.3:4 refers both to the work that it references, as well to the processes that were used to achieve the new work - a blurring, stretching and very selective editing of one music in order to create another.
Another new work presented at the show will be a new piece from The Rules Series: The Basic State, 2009. “The Basic State” is an online open source research project with a philosophical and cosmological take on the understanding of the nature of existence. The Rules Series consists of a listing of instructions and regulations, which come from very different spheres of social interaction. By shifting their original context, Bulloch is able to present an unusual insight to the social structures that rule our daily lives. This Rules Series piece will continue to grow, with more lines being added, as the research project continues to develop.
Also included in the exhibition will be two new Electric Wire Drawings: V. Point (red, wall to wall to wall) and F. S. Untitled (cyan, wall to floor). These are sculptural drawings made of electroluminiscient wire. The first one will outline the height and eve level of a specific person, while the second one will make reference to a specific work by the American minimalist sculpture Fred Sandback. By offering to the viewer only the outline of the form, by defining merely the edges of the virtual shape, the artist creates the illusion of solid volumes and it is the viewers’ perception that will have to imagine the rest of the form.
Finally, a work from the Night Skies Series, Night Sky: Alioth.4 as well as Last Year Again, 2008 will also be exhibited. The first work shows selected elements of a virtual night sky as seen from a point of view far away from the earth and reflects upon the impossibility of a single viewpoint of the order of the universe while the second consists of a double animated video projection using images of the earth taken by NASA satellites, as seen from space. The images have been manipulated, for example the weather has been removed in order to create a familiar icon but at the same time inaccessible to most of us, therefore existing only on the plane of the imagination, more real than reality.
Angela Bulloch has been nominated for the Turner Prize in 1997. She participated in the “Freeze” exhibition in London docklands in 1988 after completing her studies at Goldsmiths College University of London. Since then she has exhibited widely from the Guggenheim in New York to The Power Plant, Toronto, the Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, the Secession Wien, Vienna, the Palais de Tokyo, Paris, the ICA, Philadelphia and the Serpentine Gallery, London to name but a few. She has participated in the Venice Biennial, the Shanghai Biennial, the Lyon Biennial and the Valencia Biennial.
Tudo aquilo que a nossa
pisa e mija em cima,
serve para poesia
Press Release of the Exhibition
'All our civilization rejects,
steps and pisses on, is suitable
5th > 28th Mar 2009
In the exhibition the Brazilian artist Rosângela Rennó (Belo Horizonte, 1962) conceived for Cristina Guerra Contemporary Art consists of three different series of works. The title of the exhibition is a quote from a poem by Manoel de Barros, an important Brazilian poet, born in the state of Mato Grosso in 1912.
The central nucleus, entitled Matéria de Poesia (para Manoel de Barros) [Matter of poetry (for Manoel de Barros)] – a direct quotation from a book by the poet –, is composed of a large set of ink jet digital photographs, gathered in 6 modules of 6 images each. Made between 2008 and 2009, these works consist of a condensation of images resulting from the juxtaposition of a group of slides (all found or bought in flea markets and antique shops). The result is an almost erasure of the original images, through accumulation of information on a black surface, where fragmented and de-contextualized ghost images emerge. The title of another publication by the above-mentioned poet seems to precisely elucidate what we see in these works: “An almost erased portrait where one can see perfectly nothing”. This series reflects on the daily and ordinary usage attributed in the past to slides, which where collected and enjoyed frequently in large quantities. Nowadays, it is almost an obsolete practice, as is the social act – the ritual – of sharing it with family and friends. Each module of 6 images is complemented by the original slides and verses by Manoel de Barros.
Another series showed in the exhibition is Carrazeda+Cariri (2009), which can be thought of as the reverse of Matéria de Poesia. From the outdated slide, which is transformed into digital we move to the digital image that is transformed into a unique portrait through an almost extinct practice, the photo-painting, very popular in Brazil, in the past. Rennó searched the internet for an 18 portrait gallery of the single men from a town in the north of Portugal, Carrazeda de Ansiães, where the presence of women willing to marry is small, as they refuse to continue the hardship of the agricultural lifestyle. These portraits where sent to two photo-painters from Cariri, a Brazilian region where this practice is still active, so that they would crystallize that precise, unique and ultimate moment as a painted portrait. The galleries of portraits were made by masters Jú'9clio and Abdom and the original photographs were done by Eduardo Pinto, Rui Lopes and Rui Martins.
Finally, Rosangela Rennó, presents the artist book 2005-510117385-5. The title refers to the file number of the criminal investigation set-up by the Brazilian police after the theft of 751 photographs from the Brazilian National Library collection, located in Rio de Janeiro, which took place during a workers’ strike in 2005. Three years passed and the investigation still open, only 101 photographs were recovered and reintegrated in the Library’s collection. All of them had been mutilated in an attempt to erase the Library’s property registration marks. The book created by Rennó is a photographic album where one can only see the backs of the photographs. The impossibility of having access to the image is a metaphor for the gap in the Brazilian visual heritage that this theft represents. By choosing historical photographs, in demand in the photography market, the offenders, without record of any imprisoning, stole part of the Brazilian memory which is now left void.
Press Release of the Exhibition
'The Four Chambered Heart'
Jan 20th > Feb 21st 2009
In the year of 1959 Jean Rouch directed the film The Human Pyramid. The film is, in Rouch‘s own words, an “experience” in between fiction and documentary, where he sought to initiate a debate between two groups of students from the Ivory Cost (a group of white students and a group of black students). The film is, therefore an observation of the human behaviour, which for Rouch, as an ethnographer, is the key to in-depth thinking about political, social and racial issues.
An anticipation of the Cinéma Vérité, this often forgotten film, was the starting point of Filipa César (Porto, 1975) this last project: The Four Chambered Heart. When César was invited in the end of 2007 to attend an artistic residency at the Israeli Center for Digital Art in Holon, she thought of a similar project but tailored to the local context. She put herself in Rouch’s place – the instigator who captures on film his characters’ reactions and emotions while probing whether they are acting or not. Instead of a group of black and a group of white students, the artist brought together a group of Arab and a group of Hebrew students from three cinema schools in Israel: Almanar Film School, in Taibe; Telaviv University, Department of Film and Television, in Telaviv; and Sapir Academic College, Department of Film and TV, in Sederot. After watching the projection of the film, they start discussing their viewing experience. They question the role of cinema¸ the role of the director, and each other’s positions. They even deconstruct the cinematic device they are themselves part of, pointing out the differences between Rouch’s and César’s experiment. Gradually, an argument about cinema shifts to a debate on Israel and Palestine, on colonialism and language, culminating in the subject of external intervention (in this case European intervention, personified in Filipa César).
The body of work Filipa César has been producing has developed towards an investigation on the human nature and its visualization through the lens (hidden or not) of a camera. Such nature is surveyed in situations as diverse as the waiting hours spend at train stations (Berlin Zoo, 2001-2003), or as the narration of political resistance (Le Passeur, 2008). Above the discourse, which is verbalized, it is in the moments of silence that an increasing weight is to be found. This specificity is once more demonstrated in The Four Chambered Heart (spoken in Hebrew and subtitled in English). The recurring preference for the reaction shot as a character portrayal mechanism, fragments the statements, isolating each individual in his or her position.
Filipa Césars films increasingly propose a utopian vision of the role of cinema (and of art). One of the students states at a certain point that, “a film can not change the world”. By proposing projects such as this one, César suggests that art can, nevertheless, have an active role in such discussion.